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The amount of a genome's sequence that is functional has been surprisingly difficult to estimate accurately. This has severely hindered analyses asking whether the amount of functional genomic sequence correlates with organismal complexity. Most studies estimate these amounts by considering nucleotide substitution rates within aligned sequences.

These approaches show reduced power to identify sequence that is aligned, functional, and constrained only within narrowly defined phyla. The neutral indel model exploits insertions or deletions indels rather than substitutions in predicting functional sequence.

Surprisingly, this method indicates that half of all functional sequence is specific to individual eutherian lineages. This review considers the rates at which coding or noncoding and functional or nonfunctional sequence changes among mammalian genomes.

In contrast to the slow rate at which protein-coding sequence changes, amoeba 11-291+b1 binary noncoding sequence appears to change or be turned over amoeba 11-291+b1 binary rapid rates in mammals.

Sequence can be acquired exogenously, deleted, amoeba 11-291+b1 binary duplicated, or can be transformed between any two classes at rates k. Figure 2 Estimates of constrained genomic sequence for mammalian species. Estimates differ in the number of comparative species used in the amoeba 11-291+b1 binary a — c and the quantities of genomic sequence considered x — z.

Figure 3 Amounts of amoeba 11-291+b1 binary and thus presumed functional sequence for species pairs at variable divergences estimated using the neutral indel model For mammalian species pairs Homohuman; Macacamacaque; Musamoeba 11-291+b1 binary Rattusrat; Equushorse; Canisdog; Boscattlethere is a considerable reduction in quantities of shared constrained sequence with amoeba 11-291+b1 binary evolutionary divergence measured as the substitution rate at synonymous protein-coding sites, d S.

Less than half of the amount of sequence constrained in closely related species such as mouse and rat is constrained amoeba 11-291+b1 binary more distantly related species such as mouse and human. Estimates of constrained sequence in pairs of fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster amoeba 11-291+b1 binary Drosophila simulans and teleost fish Takifugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis were significantly less than estimates in mammals or birds Taeniopygia guttata and Gallus gallus at a comparable evolutionary amoeba 11-291+b1 binary.

This amount is consistent with the asymptotic value of shared constrained sequence seen in Figure Figure 4 Expected change of genomic sequence along the mouse Mus musculusleft and human Homo sapiensright lineages since their last common ancestor middle approximately 90 Mya.

The maintenance of genome size on the human lineage [where the loss of Mb is offset by a gain of Mb of transposable element TE —derived sequence], and the slight diminution of the rodent genome loss of 1, Mb and gain of Amoeba 11-291+b1 binary of TE-derived sequence follow Reference The sharing of Mb of ancestral repeat sequence and these species' protein-coding sequence amounts are taken from References andrespectively.

Amoeba 11-291+b1 binary insertions are indicated as being acquired evenly over time, although it is known that the human lineage acquired novel TEs at an elevated rate approximately 40 Mya As illustrated in Figure 4, deletions of apparently nonfunctional mammalian sequence are frequent, Amoeba 11-291+b1 binary negligible rates k are shown in gray, and rare and more frequent processes are indicated using light and heavy black arrows, respectively.

The absence of significant rates for other processes Figure 5 implies that it is the interchange between these two sequence types that fuels the loss of functional noncoding sequence shared between mammals over tens of millions of years, Figure 6 Overview of possible functional consequences of transposable element TE sequence insertions, showing a schematic representation of a coding gene locus with three exons, a promoter, splice junctions, and a polyadenylation signal.

Dashed blue arrows extending upward indicate TE insertion events, each with a different functional consequence. Curved red and green arrows indicate potential enhancing or silencing effects on the host gene's transcription. The ways by which inserted TEs are able to modify gene transcription and function are manifold reviewed in 7, 27, 46, Figure Figure 7 Four modes abcand d of turnover of functional regulatory sequence R1, R2, and R3each associated with transcription factors TFs.

In mode aa mutation amoeba 11-291+b1 binary star in R1 results in loss of binding by its TF and loss of function. A second mutation occurring in a different location brings novel function to previously neutrally evolving sequence R3. In mode bR2 is subject to mutational events, and complementary changes occur in the trans regulatory sequence coding for the TF, which allow it to continue to be bound. Eventually, R2 in mode bstage 3, is no longer recognizable as sequence that was functional in stage 1.

Amoeba 11-291+b1 binary mode cregulatory sequence is shuffled so that regulatory sequence is present in amoeba 11-291+b1 binary different order and location relative to the ancestral state. Mode d demonstrates the introduction of a new regulatory element R2 following a transposable element TE insertion.

CDS, coding sequence; star symbol, novel mutation. Rates of loss, gain, and shuffling of cis-regulatory elements are rapid Figure Amoeba 11-291+b1 binary 1 Genome sizes C values and gene counts G values for six eukaryotic species, showing the greater range of C over G values after For institutions and librarians: For further information, and to obtain pricing for your institution, visit the Amoeba 11-291+b1 binary Resource Center. Download Citation Citation Alerts. Abstract The amount of a genome's sequence that is functional has been surprisingly difficult to estimate accurately.

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