DE102013222682A1 - Speculative periodic synchronizer - Google Patents

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Method and system for speculative periodic synchronization are binarsignale uberprufen. A phase value, which a measured phase of the second clock signal relative to the first clock signal, which is measured at least one cycle earlier, represents is received. A period value, which binarsignale uberprufen to the first clock signal, which is measured at least one cycle earlier, represents a period of the second clock signal is also received.

A reduced timing tolerance is determined based on the phase value and the period value. Ein spekulativ synchronisiertes Ausgabe-Signal wird basierend auf der verminderten Timing-Toleranz erzeugt.

A speculative synchronized output signal is generated based on the reduced timing tolerance. Die vorliegende Erfindung betrifft Schaltungen und insbesondere Synchronisations-Schaltungen. The present invention relates to circuits and, in particular synchronization circuits.

Many digital systems have multiple clock domains. Thus, when moving signals from one clock domain to another, they must be synchronized to avoid metastability and synchronization errors. If the two clocks have fixed frequencies, the phase relationship between the two clocks is periodic in the impact frequency of the two clocks.

By this periodic phase relationship is utilized, a periodic synchronizer may be easier may have lower latency and lower error probability than a synchronizer must handle which crossing clock binarsignale uberprufen, wherein at least one of the clocks operates at a variable frequency.

Wenn zumindest einer binarsignale uberprufen Takte bei einer variablen Frequenz operiert, ist das Design des Synchronisierers komplizierter. If at least one of the clocks operates at a variable rate, the design of the synchronizer is more complicated. Typically, signals which pass between the clock domains are synchronized with a periodic clock using asynchronous first-Con-First-Out FIFO.

The FIFOs also add several cycles of delay, as the gray-coded input and output pointer of the FIFO must be synchronized by a plurality of flip-flops to transmit signals reliably clock domains. A method and a system for speculative periodic synchronization are provided. A phase value, which a measured phase of the second clock signal relative to the first clock signal, which is measured at least one clock earlier, represents is received.

A period value, which relative to the first clock signal, which is measured at least one clock earlier, represents a binarsignale uberprufen of the second clock signal is also received. Ein verminderter Zeitrand bzw. A reduced time margin and time margin timing margin is determined based binarsignale uberprufen the phase value and the period value.

Ein spekulativ synchronisiertes Ausgabe-Signal ist basiert auf der verminderten Zeit-Toleranz erzeugt. A speculative synchronized output signal is based on the reduced time margin generated. Processors, which are used in smart phones, tablets, laptop computers, or other mobile devices, sometimes reduce the supply voltage, which is supplied to one or more binarsignale uberprufen circuit devices in order to reduce energy consumption and the time between battery recharges to expand.

The integrated circuit devices can vary based on various operation modes, binarsignale uberprufen power supply voltage level for various binarsignale uberprufen within the binarsignale uberprufen. When a power supply voltage level is decreased, can be any clock signals which depend on the particular power supply voltage level, operate at a lower frequency.

When the power supply voltage level increases, the frequency of the clock signal increases. Because the clock frequencies can vary binarsignale uberprufen a function of power supply voltage levels, one can not rely on conventional synchronization techniques, which are supported on a fixed relationship between different clock domains, for transmitting signals between clock domains is where at least one of the bars has a variable frequency.

Although clock frequencies may vary to varying power supply voltage level in response, the techniques described herein can be applied to situations for which the clock frequencies for other reasons vary. For example, clock frequencies may vary when a temperature changes, or may as a result of programming vary. With respect to the present description, a first clock domain is a clock domain of any type of system that can be scanned binarsignale uberprufen which a signal sampled.

The first clock domain may comprise a first clock signal having a specific frequency or a frequency which may vary. A second clock domain may comprise a second clock signal having a specific frequency or a frequency which may vary. Signals which are transmitted from the first domain binarsignale uberprufen the second domain will be synchronized to the first clock domain.

Instead of using a conventional synchronizer, which signals between clock domains using asynchronous first-Con-first-out buffers FIFOs passes, a low-latency synchronizer can be designed which the relative phase binarsignale uberprufen the two clock domains used.

Assuming that the binarsignale uberprufen clock signal in a receiving clock domain, and that the second signal in a the transmitting clock domain, the relative phase is used to determine when signals in the transmitting clock domain by means of the receiving clock domain can be scanned.

Frequency transitions or interferences frequency transients track track and the relative phase and period between two clock domains, a high resolution phase detector, which will be further described herein can be configured to generate, if one or both of clock signals have frequencies varying. The high-resolution phase detector uses the first clock signal which is the local or receiving clock CLKR and receives the second clock signal from the transmitting clock domain Clkt.

The high-resolution phase detector outputs two signals, which encode: The phase value represents the time in clkr-unit intervals UIfrom the last transition to Clkt up to the last transition to clkr. The period value represents the time in clkr UI, between the last two transitions on Clkt.

Each delayed version of the first clock signal is a binarsignale uberprufen phase of the first clock signal. Dann wird bei Schritt Then, at step zumindest eine Kante-Indikation innerhalb der Folge von Proben lokalisiert. The edge indication is a rising or falling transition of a sample of the sequence of samples. Die zumindest eine Kante-Indikation kann benutzt werden, binarsignale uberprufen die Phase- und Periode-Werte zu berechnen.

The at least binarsignale uberprufen edge of indication can be used to calculate the phase and period values. Schritte steps. At least one of the first clock and the second clock may vary over time. Die Binarsignale uberprufen The timing sample unit binarsignale uberprufen eine Mehrzahl von Flip-Flops includes a plurality of flip-flops und eine entsprechende Mehrzahl von Synchronisierern and a corresponding plurality of synchronizers Die Synchronisierer the synchronizer umfassen typischerweise ein oder mehrere Flip-Flops, eine Menge, welche hoch genug ist, um eine niedrige Wahrscheinlichkeit eines Synchronisations-Fehlers zu erreichen.

For example, perform four binarsignale uberprufen five flip-flops in series with an error probability of less than 10 Die erster the first und zweiter and second Werte sind als Signale kodiert und zeigen die Stellen von Kante-Indikationen an, als eine Zahl von Bit-Positionen von binarsignale uberprufen Nwo der binarsignale uberprufen bzw.

Values are encoded as signals and indicate the locations of edge-indications, as a number of bit positions of N t, where the first and the second transition occurred.

Die Binarsignale uberprufen The phase unit binarsignale uberprufen ein Phase-Register includes binarsignale uberprufen phase registereinen InkrementorAn incrementer und einen Multiplexer and a multiplexer If a transition is detected, z. Value as output next phase binarsignale uberprufen. If a transition is not detected, z. Die Periode-Einheit The period unit umfasst eine Periode-Register includes a period register binarsignale uberprufen, einen SubtraktorA subtractor und zwei Multiplexer and two multiplexers und and If no transition is detected, eg.

Otherwise, when two transitions are detected, eg. If only one transition is detected, eg. When a second transition is detected, a first transition is also detected. Der Subtraktor zieht den erster- The subtractor pulls the erster- binarsignale uberprufen von der Eingabe ab, um eine Ausgabe zu erzeugen. Value on the input to produce an output. Cycles in binarsignale uberprufen past. Die Frequenz des zweiten Taktes Clk The frequency of binarsignale uberprufen second clock Clk ist schneller als die Frequenz des ersten Taktes, Clk is faster than the frequency of the first clock, Clk Wie gezeigt ist, treten zwei Kanten des Clk As shown, pits two edges of the Clk innerhalb binarsignale uberprufen Periode within the period auf.

Die Steigung kann mittels einer Synchronisations-Einheit genutzt binarsignale uberprufen, um einen genaueren Wert der Zukunfts-Phase und Zukunfts-Periode vorherzusagen. The slope can be used by means of a synchronization unit, to predict a more accurate value of the future phase and future period. Die Phase The phase und Periode and period werden bei der Takt-Kante are used in the clock-edge aktualisiert. The phase und Periode and period werden bei der Takt-Kante are used in the clock-edge aktualisiert.

Dann lokalisiert bei Schritt Then locates, binarsignale uberprufen step die Kante-Detektions-Einheit the edge detection unit irgendwelche Kanten, z. Bei Schritt In step binarsignale uberprufen die Phase-Einheit determines the phase unitob eine erste Kante-Indikation mittels der Kante-Detektions-Einheit Whether a first edge indication means of the edge detection binarsignale uberprufen detektiert war, und wenn nicht, wird bei Schritt was detected, and if not, at step die Phase the phase auf die Phase to the phase aktualisiert inkrementiert um eine Periode von Clk Updated incremented by one period of Clkz.

Wenn anderenfalls eine erste-Kante-Indikation detektiert ist, setzt bei Schritt Otherwise, if a first edge indication is detected, sets at step die Phase-Einheit the phase unit die Binarsignale uberprufen the phase gleich dem ersten equal to the first Signal, welches mittels binarsignale uberprufen Kante-Detektions-Einheit Signal by means of the edge detection unit erzeugt binarsignale uberprufen.

Bei Schritt In step bestimmt die Periode-Einheit determines the period unitob eine zweite Kante-Indikation mittels der Kante-Detektions-Einheit Whether a second indication binarsignale uberprufen by the edge detection unit detektiert ist, und wenn dem so ist, dann setzt bei Schritt is detected, and if so, then sets at step die Periode-Einheit the period unit die Periode the period gleich der Differenz zwischen dem zweiten equal to the difference between the second Signal binarsignale uberprufen dem ersten Signal Signal and the first signal Kanten, innerhalb der Folge von ersten Binarsignale uberprufen zu lokalisieren.

Edge to locate within the sequence of first clock samples. Die Phase-Einheit The phase unit umfasst ein Phase-Register includes a phase registereinen AddiererAn addereinen MultiplexerA multiplexer und einen Phasen-Dividierer and a phase divider Der Wert rperiod The value rperiod wird in der Phase-Einheit is in the phase unit anstatt der konstanten EINS in der Phase-Einheit instead of the constant one in the phase unit benutzt.

Auch wird der Wert von Phase, welcher mittels der Phase-Einheit Also, the value of phase is that by means of the phase unit erzeugt ist, durch rperiod is generated by rperiod zur Benutzung mittels eines schnellen periodischen Synchronisierers geteilt. If a transition is detected, eg. Value as an output, next phase. Die inkrementierte Phase The incremented phase -Wert wird mittels des Addierers is value by the adder als die Vor-Dividierer-Phase as the pre-divider phase inkrementiert um rperiod incremented by rperiod berechnet.

Die Ausgabe des Binarsignale uberprufen The output of the phase registerz. Die Periode-Einheit The period unit umfasst ein Periode-Register includes a period registereine Subtraktor A subtractorzwei MultiplexerTwo multiplexersMultiplexermultiplexers und Dividierer and divider Man bemerke, dass N irgendeine ganze Zahl sein kann, N muss nicht eine Potenz von 2 sein. It is noted that N can be any integer, N need not be a power of 2.

Der Subtraktor subtrahiert den erster The subtractor subtracts the first Wert von der Eingabe, um eine Ausgabe zu erzeugen. Value from the input to produce an output. Die Ausgabe des Periode-Registers The output of the period registerz.

Vor-Dividierer-Periode, wird durch rperiod B. Pre-divider period, is carried rperiod innerhalb des Periode-Dividierers within the period-divider geteilt, um den Periode- divided to the Periode- -Wert zu erzeugen. Dann lokalisiert bei Schritt Then locates, at step die Periode-Berechnungs-Einheit the period calculation unit eine Kante, z. Bei Schritt In step bestimmt die Periode-Einheit determines the period unitob eine zweite-Kante-Indikation mittels der Kante-Detektions-Einheit Whether a second edge indication means of the edge detection unit detektiert ist, und wenn dem so ist, dann setzt bei Schritt is detected, binarsignale uberprufen if binarsignale uberprufen, then sets at step die Periode-Einheit the period unit die Periode the period gleich der Differenz des zweiter- equal to the difference of the zweiter- -Wertes und des erster- -value and erster- -Wertes dividiert durch die rperiod -value divided by the rperiod Are received, to synchronize.

Therefore, the variation-tolerant synchronizer can be used in integrated circuit devices which employ Spannungsnachverfolgende clock generators voltage-tracking generators. In one embodiment, two registers are used to scan separately "even" and "odd" transitions. If more than two registers sample the signals to be synchronized and save the indication specifies the corresponding binarsignale uberprufen transition, z. In the past resist.

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The present invention relates to a method for Ge winnen an image of specific color from an object. From DE-OS 39 22 , a method for recognition of colors in a color original is known to be printed on textiles. Here are some color points selected as the reference color and allocated them identification symbols. Although a possible color variation on the Farbvor can be balanced position in this way, changing lighting is not taken into account.

Further, the US may be mentioned 4,,, in which the optical density of color shading is determined by comparison with at least three predetermined values.

Thus, although can at reproduction in digital printing with three colors plus black to be worn under different union saturation conditions into account, but not the various lighting ratios one object to be imaged. The object of the present invention is to capture color images or limitations of color areas regardless of changing illumination. Such an approach based on a black and white image process is not only to identify relative to the geometric properties suitable own, so it can not distinguish the object based on its color.

Zu diesem Zweck wurde ein anderes Verfahren vorgeschlagen, bei dem eine Fernsehkamera ein gesetzt wird, die ein Videosignal schafft, das ein Farb bild des Gegenstandes wiedergibt.

For this purpose a different method has been proposed in which a television camera is a set that provides a video signal representing a color image of the object. This video signal is processed so that a color separation is made with respect to a certain color for obtaining the geome trical properties on the basis of special or filtered color image of the object. The special color is generally selected by the user and determines a combination of the three primary colors and has a suitable level range.

That is, in Beach processing a color distance, which is defined by a stem Koordinatensy with coordinates of the three primary colors, the special color may be determined in the color space as a limited zone with limited Pegelbe rich with respect to the three primary colors.

To overcome this problem over, it has been proposed, the zone is a ge Wisse measure to increase to compensate for the variation of Ligh ting level. This is described in Japanes chen publication Nevertheless remains with this method, the problem that the color, the chroma and the brightness can not be chosen independently.

For example, it is not possible to pull out an image of the object, but the same chromaticism has a different color. Problems and drawbacks are overcome by the present invention which proposes a ver improved method for obtaining a specific image of an object. The improved process of the invention creates a unique Be humor of the color of the object with respect to the color and the chromatic independently.

An achromatic color axis extending through the origin of the coordinate system to determine a color without color shading and chromatic. For the color tone determination, a pair of color are chosen tint parting planes extending through the achromatic schematic axis and be circumferentially spaced are abstandet around the achromatic axis, so as to define a specific hue range, the rule Zvi the two hue separation planes is limited.

The video signal is then with respect to the three primary color components such agrees be within the color space, that the video signal indicating a special color tone, if the three primary color components prove to be within the specific hue range. In this way, the video signal is extracted as a sonderes be color signal indicating a filtered image of the object with respect to the particular hue.

Since the particular hue region which is enclosed between the color separating planes extending longitudinally and also in the radial direction of the achromatic axis of the color space within the coordinate system, it includes all the areas of brightness and chroma tik.

The particular hue region may therefore be selected un depending on each change of brightness and chro matics. The special hue area can be approximated or expanded simply by angularly displacing the color separation plane around the achromatic axis. This allows real-time processing. The invention further provides a verbes Sertes process in which the color image of a particular hue can be subjected in real-time. For a determination of the chromatism, the rectangular coordinate system has a color triangle, the three peaks at the respective coordinates of points that are equidistant from the origin of the coordinate system.

A particular Chromatikbereich is selected within the color space between an outer and an inner triangular pyramid triangular pyramid. The inner triangular pyramid consists Wesent union of three inner chromatic parting planes extending through the origin of the coordinate system he stretch and in each case by three internal lines are selected in the color triangle, so as to extend parallel to the three sides of the color triangle, respectively around the achromatic axis.

Since the special Chromatikbereich ramide inner half of the color space between the outer triangular Py and the inner triangular pyramid is an annular space and at the same time extends in the direction of the achromatic axis and radially outward into the color space of coor ordinate line, include all of the areas of the color tone and the Brightness. The special Farbbe can therefore rich ligkeit regardless of any change of Hel and the color tone can be determined.

The outer hexagonal pyramid be essentially consists of six outer Chromatiktrenn planar, the stems extending through the origin of Koordinatensy and six outer lines which are selected within the color triangle to three pairs, each pair comprising two parallel lines, the opposite jointly to the achromatic axis in par allelic relationship with each of the three sides of the color triangle. The video signal is then analyzed in such a way with respect to the three primary color components within the color space, that the video signal is determined to indicate a particular chromatic if because shows that the three primary color components fall within the special Chromatikbereiches.

It is therefore possible to select a particular Chromatikbereich independent of any change in the brightness and the color tint. Further, the present invention provides an improved method for extracting an image of an object that allows a concentration or extending a special Chromatikberei ches, which is surrounded by an outer and an inner hexagonal pyramid, regardless of amendments of the hue and the brightness approximations for obtaining a color image of an object with respect to the out selected special chromaticism.

Nach der Erfindung sind die Chromatiktrennebenen durch die folgende Glei chung definiert: According to the invention, the Chromatiktrennebenen are defined by the following sliding chung: Eine Variation des Parameters C alleine verursacht daher eine Verlagerung der Chromatiktrennebene parallel zu einer entsprechenden der drei Seiten des Farbdreieckes, wo durch der besondere Chromatikbereich eingeengt oder er weitert wird. A variation of the parameter C alone, therefore, causes a displacement of the Chromatiktrennebene parallel to a corresponding one of the three sides of the color triangle, where concentrated by the special Chromatikbereich or is weitert.

Since the Chromatiktrennebene is expressed by the above equation in a simple manner, the extraction of the color signal can be effected in a simple manner without the need for complicated calculations, which permits rapid processing.

Next allows, the present invention, an improved method for extracting an image of an object, which is suitable for a particular Chromatikbereich to expand independent of changes in chroma and brightness for extracting a color image of an object with respect to a specific chromatic restricting your freedom or, and While a quick and easy way.

For n the range 0 n 0. The equation [1] combined with the equation [2] indicates a pair of Chromatiktrennebenen that the achromatic axis are opposed such that in the chromatic separation planes each have two colors with the same Chromatikpegel, but each entgegenge sat hue.

Eine Variation des Chromatikparame ters C alleine verursacht eine Verlagerung des Paares der Chromatiktrennebenen gleichzeitig entgegengesetzt zu der achromatischen Achse parallel zu einer entsprechen den der drei Seiten des Farbdreieckes, wodurch der be stimmte Chromatikbereich eingeengt oder erweitert wird. A variation of the Chromatikparame ters C alone causes a shift of the pair of Chromatiktrennebenen simultaneously in opposite directions to the achromatic axis parallel to correspond to the three sides of the color triangle, whereby the be voted is concentrated Chromatikbereich or extended.

A variation of the number n causes a change in the determined Chromatikbereiches in its design, that is, the hexagonal pyramid or triangular pyramid.

If the number n is 0. If the number n is not 0. Since the pair of Chroma tiktrennebenen in the simple form of equation expressed in combination with equation [1 , the extract of the color signal can be effected in a more simple manner without the need for relatively kom more complicated calculations, which allows real-time processing. The achromatic region can be selected independently of any change in brightness or color tone.

Since the achromatic region from a particular Chromatikbereich a certain level or less is, a white separation of the object can be moved out of the achromatic region. Eine Farbverarbeitungsvorrichtung weist eine Monitorein heit auf mit einer Farbfernsehkamera mit einer Mehrzahl von Vorverarbeitungseinheiten und einer Bildgewinnungs einheit.

A color processing apparatus includes a Monitorein on unit with a color television camera having a plurality of pre-processing and an image-extraction unit. Each of the pre-processing has a hue determination section, mung section a Chromatikbestim and a brightness determining section. The hue determination section and the chroma tikbestimmungsabschnitt operate according to the above beschrie surrounded method for extracting the particular color signals to produce a filtered image of the object with respect to the particular hue or chroma.

In dem Helligkeitsbestimmungsabschnitt wird das Video signal des Gegenstandes gewonnen von der Fernsehkamera. In the brightness determining section the video signal of the object obtained by the television camera.

The video signal is then color components with respect to the three primary analyzed to extract the video signal as a special color signal is a filtered image of the object with respect to the specific brightness.

A logic circuit section performs a logical radio tion with respect to the extracted color signals, and provides an output signal of the reproducing an image of the Stan, representing the result of the logical func NEN. A proces for Bildherleitungseinheit th the output of the logic portion provides geo metrical characteristics including the location, area and the profile of the object. Next, in a preferred embodiment, each of the three pre-processing units has an input terminal, an output terminal and a supply terminal.

The input terminal receives the video signal from the color television camera. Der Ausgangsabschnitt liefert das Ausgangssignal von dem logischen Schaltabschnitt. The output section provides the output signal from the logic circuit section. The feed terminal can pass the video signal to the input terminal of the other of the preprocessing. With this an arrangement, the preprocessing can be so out chooses to have different areas with respect to the hue range of Chromatikberei ches, the brightness range, so that the units emit in vidual output signals corresponding to the different union filtered images.

Output signals thus obtained can be processed then cut into the Bildherleitungsab, create composite images, which correspond to the outputs of the three pre-processing. The invention is explained below with reference to a drawing. Dabei zeigt Here shows.

In one embodiment of the present invention, an article is observed by a television camera to provide a video signal having the three primary color components. Ein rechteckiges Koordinatensystem wird zur Definierung ei nes Farbraumes verwendet. A rectangular coordinate system is used to define ei nes color space. The coordinate system is composed of three mutually perpendicular coordinates "red", "green" and "blue" as shown in FIG.

Jedoch kann auch ein Koordinatensystem, das aus anderen drei Farbsystemen besteht, bei der Erfindung verwendet werden. However, even a coordinate system, which consists of three other color systems may be used in the invention.

A color is referred to as a coordinate R, G, B in the co ordinate system. Ein Ursprung 0, 0, 0 des Koordinatensystems stellt eine Nullenergie des Lichtes dar. An origin 0, 0, 0 of the coordinate system represents a zero energy of light. An achromatic color axis "Cw" without hue and chroma extends through the origin 0, 0, 0 and a coordinate 1, 1, 1 , Ein Farbdreieck "Tc" ist rechtwinklig zu der achromatischen Achse "Tc", seine drei Spitzen sind auf den jeweiligen Koordinaten an Punkten, die von dem Ursprung einen gleichen Abstand ha ben.

A color triangle "Tc" is perpendicular to the achromatic axis "Tc", its three peaks are on the respective coordinates at points equidistant from the origin ha ben. A principle for extracting a color signal corresponding to a particular hue region from a video signal of the object is described below. Die allgemeine Gleichung einer Ebene wird wie folgt wie dergegeben: The general equation of a plane as dergegeben as follows: That is, each of the three coefficients is pressed out by the following equations 3 , 4 and 5: When the equations 3 , 4 , 5 into the equation 2 are used, the equation 2 can be expressed by the following equation 6 who is to: The hue separation plane "Qr", which is expressed by the equation 6 is perpendicular to the color triangle "Tc", which is shown in Fig.

In this way, a certain color shade area which is bounded by the two color tint separation planes with different parameters "hr", expressed by the following inequality By the above inequality 10 certain specific tinting field consists mainly of red color. Ande hand, is expressed a particular color hue range of the ENT set against color tone of the red color by the fol constricting inequality The particular shade area which is expressed by the sliding monitoring 11 , consists mainly of the color cyan.

Accordingly, the equation 2 by the following sliding chung 15 , when the following equations 12 , 13 , 24 in the equation 2 is set, expressed: A particular hue region which lies between the two parting planes "Qp" with different color tone parameters "hg" is the following equation by Un 16 expressed: The particular hue region defined by the sliding monitoring 16 is determined consists essentially of the green color.

The particular shade area which is expressed by the equation 17 , consisting essentially of the color magenta. If the following equations 18 , 19 , 20 are inserted into the equation 2 , the equation 2 can be pressed by the following equation A particular by the equation 22 of certain area consists essentially of the color blue.

On the other hand, a hue region which has an opposite color tone of the color blue as expressed by the following inequality